General Info

Can I use TestCafe for free?

Yes! The TestCafe framework includes everything you need to write and run end-to-end tests. Anybody can download and install TestCafe from the NPM registry for free. The framework’s source code is available on GitHub under the open-source MIT license.

What is the difference between TestCafe and TestCafe Studio?

TestCafe and TestCafe Studio can run the exact same tests. There’s no difference when it comes to testing capabilities, browser support, OS support, or test suite size.

The main difference between the two products is the workflow.

  • TestCafe is a command-line application that runs test scripts. It requires a basic understanding of JavaScript and the Node.JS ecosystem. TestCafe is free and open-source.
  • TestCafe Studio is a desktop application that allows you to interactively record and edit tests. You can use it to create test scripts or codeless tests. Many TestCafe Studio capabilities do not require any programming knowledge. You can buy a TestCafe Studio license from DevExpress.

What operating systems does TestCafe support?

TestCafe and TestCafe Studio work on macOS, Linux, and Windows. See the following guides: Install TestCafe and Install TestCafe Studio.

I want to run tests in different browsers. Which browsers does TestCafe support?

TestCafe can run tests in any modern browser. However, the TestCafe team only guarantees compatibility with the two latest versions of every popular browser.

Does the technology stack of my web application affect TestCafe tests?

Your web application can use any language, framework, or platform — Ruby, Node.js, Rust, C#, PHP, Blazor, or something else. TestCafe runs tests in the browser, and does not interact with your application’s back-end. If your client-side code conforms to modern web standards, TestCafe can test it.

What programming language do TestCafe tests use?

You can write TestCafe test scripts in the following programming languages:

  • JavaScript
  • TypeScript
  • CoffeeScript

Community plugins offer support for Gherkin and Cucumber syntax.

TestCafe Studio can record TestCafe tests in the following formats:

  • JavaScript
  • TypeScript
  • Codeless tests (*.testcafe). Codeless tests do not support the full range of TestCafe capabilities.

TestCafe can run legacy TestCafe v2015.1 tests (*.test.js). Legacy tests do not support the full range of TestCafe capabilities.

Can I test mobile applications with TestCafe?

TestCafe can test any application that runs in a browser. It can test mobile websites, Progressive Web Applications and Electron apps.

TestCafe offers the following mobile testing capabilities:

  • Run TestCafe tests on remote devices, such as smartphones and tablets.
  • Run TestCafe tests on cloud browser farms, such as BrowserStack and SauceLabs.
  • When you run TestCafe tests in Chromium-based browsers, you can enable the device emulation mode.

TestCafe cannot test native mobile applications (such as ReactNative apps) or WebView-based mobile apps (such as Apache Cordova apps).

Can I use TestCafe for performance testing?

We do not recommend the use of TestCafe for performance or load testing.

TestCafe is a functional testing tool. TestCafe cannot measure performance metrics, such as time to first byte (TTFB) or requests per second.

To run tests, TestCafe injects automation scripts and custom styles into the browser. These extra resources create an overhead that affects application performance. That’s why performance or load tests do not yield conclusive results.

Can I use TestCafe for API testing?

Yes! TestCafe includes everything you need to create API tests. Use the server-side t.request method to issue HTTP requests. Use assertions to validate server responses.

For more information, read the API Testing guide.

Can tests emulate keyboard shortcuts or interact with browser dialogs?

The purpose of TestCafe is to interact with web applications. To accomodate popular testing scenarios, the framework can interact with common native dialogs. However, TestCafe is still subject to the following limitations:

  • TestCafe cannot emulate system events, such as key press combinations or GPS signals.
  • TestCafe cannot access system resources, such as the clipboard.
  • TestCafe cannot interact with browser windows, such as the Print dialog, or HTML5 input prompts.

Most of the time, you can work around these limitations. Let’s consider a couple of examples.

Example 1: Location request dialogs

Imagine that your application needs to detect the user’s location. In a real life scenario, the application triggers a dialog box that requests location data. This dialog is a part of the browser, and TestCafe cannot interact with the dialog directly. To work around this limitation, create a mock function that feeds dummy data to your application. This solution significantly simplifies the testing process. See the Mock Geolocation API example.

Example 2: Native HTML5 inputs

The UI of native HTML5 inputs (date, time, color, etc.) is technically a part of the browser, not a part of your page. Therefore, you cannot use regular TestCafe actions to interact with these dialogs. However, for testing purposes it makes little difference whether you interact with the dialog or enter the value as text. Use the typeText action to enter a value instead.


Can I run tests in multiple browsers at once?

  • TestCafe can launch multiple browsers simultaneously. Specify multiple browsers at launch and quickly uncover browser-specific errors.
  • Concurrency mode allows you to launch multiple instances of each browser to speed up the testing process.

Does TestCafe impose any limitations on Cross-Origin testing?


Can TestCafe access elements in an “iframe”?

Yes. TestCafe can access elements inside iframes, even if these iframes are nested. To access an iframe, change the test execution context with the t.switchToIframe method.

Can TestCafe access elements in a different browser window?

Yes. TestCafe can interact with elements across multiple browser windows. This is necessary to fill OAuth forms and interact with chat windows. Use window management methods to switch between different browser windows.

Can TestCafe test applications that use WebSockets?


Can TestCafe feed mock data to a web application?

Yes. You can emulate HTTP responses to feed sample data to your app, troubleshoot connectivity errors, and test your application during infrastructure downtime.

Can TestCafe inject third-party client-side libraries into a web application?

Yes. You can execute custom client-side code to parse the web page, examine its state, or even add extra dependencies.

Can TestCafe access resources that require authentication?

Of course. You can authenticate users with regular page actions, and use role scripts to switch between different user accounts on the fly.

Can TestCafe handle two-factor authentication?

Two-factor authentication usually falls outside the scope of functional testing tools. TestCafe is no exception. We do not offer any built-in tools that handle two-factor authentication.

It is important to consider the purpose of your test. Do you want to test the two-factor authentication process itself? If so, test this capability with non-functional methods.

If you need to access resources that require two-factor authentication, consider the following workaround. Deploy your application in a separate testing environment. To prevent possible security risks, make sure that the testing environment does not have access to your production data. Then, turn off two-factor authentication for that particular deployment. That’s it — now your website is ready for functional testing.

Can I integrate TestCafe tests into my CI workflow?

Yes. Most modern CI/CD platforms can launch TestCafe tests. There are even plugins that simplify this process for select CI providers. Refer to our Continuous Integration guides for more information.

How does TestCafe work if it doesn’t use Selenium/WebDriver?

Unlike traditional testing solutions, TestCafe does not use Selenium or WebDriver. Instead, TestCafe includes a hybrid automation engine that can execute both system-level and in-browser code. A proxy that injects client-side automation scripts into web pages connects the two parts of the engine.

The hybrid engine allows TestCafe to implement capabilities that Selenium lacks, such as user roles and automatic waiting algorithms. Moreover, TestCafe has native access to the DOM and can safely execute custom client-side scripts.

To manage windows and perform other browser actions, TestCafe makes use of CDP and Marionette.

Our design choices have a minor downside. Since TestCafe injects automation scripts into the browser, the events that TestCafe triggers are not fully native. The value of the isTrusted property of these events is false. To prevent this behavior, we plan to fully integrate CDP and Marionette into the framework in the near future.

Refer to the Why TestCafe article for more information about the framework’s architecture.

Do I need to change my application’s code to use TestCafe?

No, you don’t need to change your application code to run TestCafe tests.

We do, however, encourage the use of custom HTML attributes for key page elements. Custom HTML attributes increase test stability and simplify Element Selector queries.

What programming languages and techniques do I need to know in order to master TestCafe?

Basic JavaScript knowledge is enough to get started with TestCafe and follow our code examples.

If you want to further improve your end-to-end tests, learn more about the following subjects:

  • CSS selectors
  • HTML5 markup
  • Modern client-side JavaScript
  • Promises and async/await syntax (for a better understanding of the TestCafe API and its asynchronous code)
  • Node.js (TestCafe tests are Node.js scripts. You can integrate third-party Node modules into your tests.)
  • TypeScript (to leverage the benefits of a type safe language).

How do I know if TestCafe is right for me? How do I convince others?

  1. Think about your current situation. What user scenarios do you need to test? Can TestCafe accommodate these scenarios?
  2. Think about your plans. What do you plan to add to your product? Will TestCafe be able to accommodate your growing testing needs?

TestCafe is a good fit if the framework satisfies your current needs, and can satisfy the needs you expect to soon develop. Try TestCafe and see how it feels. Deliberately write tests that are likely to cause trouble, and identify any potential deal-breakers.

Once you gain enough hands-on experience, you will have a good understanding of TestCafe and its capabilities. If you know people with similar needs, share this information and convince them to try TestCafe for themselves.

I want to avoid common mistakes in test design. Where can I learn about TestCafe best practices?

The Best Practices article lists guidelines that we use to create stable and reliable tests. You can find additional code examples throughout our documentation and in the dedicated sample test repository.

Does TestCafe collect or share my test data?

  • The TestCafe framework doesn’t collect or share any data related to your tests.
  • TestCafe Studio may collect and upload anonymous data if you opt in during installation. You can change this setting at any time.

How do I subscribe to TestCafe news or learn about recent updates?

On average, the TestCafe team publishes framework updates every month. We strictly adhere to the semver policy.

  • View the Release notes page for more information on most TestCafe updates.
  • View the Changelog on GitHub for more information on the contents of minor TestCafe patches.
  • Watch the TestCafe repository on GitHub to keep track of the framework’s development.
  • Visit our Blog for in-depth articles about the framework’s capabilities. Subscribe to the blog’s RSS feed to receive notifications every time TestCafe publishes a new article.
  • Read the TestCafe Studio Version History article for more information on the content of TestCafe Studio updates.
  • Follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

How do I ask for technical support?

We offer dedicated technical support to TestCafe Studio license holders. Other users can reach out to the TestCafe community on GitHub or StackOverflow.

How to create a Minimal Working Example when you submit an issue

Modern software breaks in increasingly complex ways. Often, software issues are hard to reproduce — let alone investigate. TestCafe is no different.

That’s why it’s important to include a Minimal Working Example (MWE) with your TestCafe bug report. A good MWE ensures the issue is easy to reproduce and troubleshoot.

A Minimal Working Example should:

  • Be simple and easy to follow. Convoluted scenarios are hard to reproduce.
  • Not contain code that does not help reproduce the issue. Remove actions that do not affect the outcome.
  • Include a complete set of relevant data: the URL of the test page, the list of launch options, and the steps you follow to launch the tests.

Good Practices

  • The test page URL should point to a public web page. Do not share private access credentials with DevExpress support.

    import { Selector } from 'testcafe';
    fixture `Fixture`
    test('test', async t => {
      await t
        .expect(Selector('h1').text).eql('Example Domain');
  • The repository should contain all the information and files necessary to reproduce the issue. Any user should be able to follow your instructions.

    I uploaded the demo to a [github repository](link). Follow the steps below to reproduce the issue:
    - Clone/download the repository.
    - Run the following commands:
        yarn install
        yarn webpack --mode development 
    - Start the web server: 
        yarn serve dist 
    - Run the test:
        yarn testcafe chrome tests/**/*.test.js

Practices to Avoid

Examples that contain incomplete information slow down debugging. If your bug report doesn’t include all the necessary details, the project’s maintainers spend more time asking questions, and less time dealing with the issue at hand.

Common mistakes people make when they compile bug reports:

  • The bug report does not include the test page URL. The example below references the url variable, but does not define it in code.

    fixture `Add to card`
    test('test', async t => {
  • The example repository does not include the files referenced in the test code. The example below imports the getCookie helper and ExamplePage page model. If the repository lacks these files, the example cannot be run.

    import { getCookie } from '/helpers';
    import { ExamplePage } './page-model';
    fixture `Fixture`
    test('test', async t => {
      const cookies = await getCookie();
  • The bug report only contains English language instructions, and no test code.

    1. Click the first menu item
    2. Open a modal popup to specify product count
    3. Click the 'Buy' button
  • The example requires that you install additional software. Mock third-party services and applications to simplify the example, and make it easier to reproduce.

  • I cannot legally share the example source code / The application that I test displays sensitive information.

    Attempt to reproduce the issue without proprietary code. Mock or remove all private data.

  • My application is password-protected, and I cannot share the credentials on GitHub for security reasons.

    Create an example that does not depend on password-protected resources. Do not share sensitive data, such as access credentials, with the DevExpress support team.

  • The issue is not page-dependent. Which page should I use for the test example?

    Create a test for the TestCafe example page.

  • I notified a member of the TestCafe team of an issue. Why haven’t I received a response?

    We do not recommend you contact members of the TestCafe team directly. If the recipient is absent or no longer part of the TestCafe team, the information you share may never come to our attention. Create a GitHub issue with your example instead.

  • My tests only fail when I run them on Docker.

    Containers and virtual machines have limited resources. TestCafe tests may fail if TestCafe, the browser, or the application does not have enough resources to run smoothly. Try to increase the amount of resources allocated to the Docker image or increase the timeout values for Selectors and assertions. If you are sure that issue is with Docker, send us the complete Docker image and its sources.

  • My tests run well on the local machine, but fail as unstable on CI.

    Many CI settings can impact your test performance. That’s why it can be hard to determine the reason a test fails on CI.

    Before you troubleshoot the test, confirm that your web server correctly processes HTTP requests. Then, adjust your timeout values. Generate a debug log — it can help you understand the origin of the failure.

    set DEBUG=testcafe:*,hammerhead:*
    testcafe chrome index.js 2> testcafe.log

    To get help from the TestCafe community, attach the debug log to a GitHub issue or a StackOverflow question.